< Vegetables



The potato derives from the Peruvian Andes, where it has been cultivated for over 6,000 years. The Conquistadors encountered the potato in 1537 in the mountains of Ecuador. As the story goes, it would later reach England by way of Sir Walter Raleigh’s men returning from Virginia in the 1580s, but no evidence confirms the white potato’s existence in North America at that time. Rather, it more than likely came by way of Colombia, South America with Sir Francis Drake in 1586 as he stopped in Virginia on his way back to England.[1] Potatoes were brought to colonial North America several times throughout the 17th century, but not until 1719 did they gain notoriety when Scotch-Irish immigrants to Londonderry, New Hampshire begin planting them. Benjamin Franklin returned from France celebrating the virtues of the potato as a vegetable, securing for the potato its popularity in the Northeast.[2]

Prior to the nineteenth century, while America embraced the potato, Europeans by and large resisted it. Particularly on the Continent, the primacy of grains and the myriad tales of the potato’s supposed ill effects on the body and mind rendered it suspect. By the mid-1700s, the “Irish” or white potato was firmly established as an important article of food in New England.[3] English agriculturalist John Rogers stated that the “discovery of this inestimable root has been of the greatest consequences to mankind; and the cultivation of it has now become almost of equal importance with that of corn”.[4] However, it was in America at this time that the potato vied with corn as the nation’s chief starch. The author of The Young Housekeeper (pub. 1838) wrote, “Too much importance can hardly be attached to an article which forms the principal support of many millions” where “in New England, it forms one of the staple productions of the soil.”[5]

Of the chemistry and uses of the potato, one physician claimed that “cooked by steam, the potatoe is most healthy food. By different manipulations it furnishes two kinds of flour—a gruel and a parenchyma, which may be applied to increase the bulk of bread made from grain. Treated chemically, it is converted to beer, vinegar, spirits, &c.”[6] The potato’s notoriety soon spread down through the mid-Atlantic and ultimately to the Southern colonies, where the sweet potato, nonetheless, reigned supreme.

By the mid-nineteenth century, the gardening manuals and cookbooks proliferating from the press featured the potato as a culinary mainstay. As one of the era’s most widely read farming manuals, Samuel Deane’s Georgical Dictionary spoke authoritatively of the potato as “so hardy a plant, that it will grow in any kind of soil, and even with the poorest culture. It is a great improver of land . . . a crop of potatoes is good to prepare land for other crops.” “Plant from the first of May through the end of June. . . The fashionable way of planting potatoes in hills, may be as good as any in rough ground . . . But in a rich, mellow soil, well pulverized, the drill method is to be preferred.[7] Thomas Greene Fessenden, editor of the New England Farmer, advised that potatoes “may be propagated from seed, cuttings, or layers of the green shoots, sprouts from the eyes of the tubers [roots], or portions of the tubers containing a bud or eye, or by planting the tubers whole. The object of the first method is to procure a new or improved variety; of the second, little more than curiosity, or to multiply, as quickly as possible, a rare sort; and of the third, to save the tubers for food.”[8]

As in Europe, American potato recipes ran the gamut; among the most popular potato dishes included mashed potatoes; boiled potatoes dressed with butter; potato bread; fried potatoes cooked with onions and pork; or fried with cream or butter; and potato “balls” dipped in flour and egg yolk and fried. One recipe for fried potatoes suggests to “cut them in slices of equal thickness, or into thin shavings, and throw them into plenty of boiling butter . . . Fry them of a fine light brown, and very crisp.”[9]

In 1872, American horticulturist Luther Burbank developed the Russet Burbank potato and thus would solidify the potato as one of America’s primary food staples.

1. John F. Mariani, The Encyclopedia of American Food & Drink (New York: Lebhar-Friedman Books, 1999), p. 252.
2. Ernest Small, Top 100 Food Plants: The World’s Most Important Culinary Crops (Ontario: NRC Research Press, 2009), p. 424
3. Larry Zuckerman, The Potato: How the Humble Spud Rescued the Western World (Boston: Faber & Faber, 1998), p. XX
4. John Rogers, The Vegetable Cultivator (London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1839), p. 241.
5. William Alcott, The Young House-keeper (Boston: George W. Light, 1838), p. 151.
6. H.C. Worsham, “An Essay on the Solonum Tuberosum,” Philadelphia Journal of the Medical and Physical Sciences, 6 (1823), p. 28.
7. Samuel Deane, The New-England farmer; or, Georgical Dictionary (Boston: Wells and Lilly, 1822) p. 345-346.
8. Thomas Greene Fessenden, The American Kitchen Gardener (New York: C.M. Saxton and Company, 1856) p. 87
9. Sarah J. Hale, Mrs. Hale’s New Cook Book (Philadelphia: T.B. Peterson and Brothers, 1857) p. 269.

Alpha    History

the earliest variety in cultivation; fit for the table 10 or 12 days before the Early Rose and White Peachblow. The flesh is white, fine grained, firm and of excellent flavor.

Beauty of Hebron    History

One of the best of the early varieties. Skin tinged with pink at first, but becomes pure white during the winter. Flesh solid to the center, even in large specimens, and of the finest quality.

Belle    History

tubers large and good shape, sometimes slightly russeted; in color they are a trifle darker than the Early Rose.

Boston Market    History

new (as of 1883); tubers medium to large, oval oblong, slightly flattened. Color light pink; very heavy yielder.

Brownell’s Beauty    History

“We take much pleasure in announcing another new Potato, raised by Mr. E.S. Brownell, and enthusiastic farmer in Northern Vermont, and named by him ‘Brownell’s Beauty.’ This variety was obtained in 1870, after a long seires of experiments, by fertilizing The blossom of the Early Rose with the pollen of the White Peach Blow,” it is “without Exception, the handsomest Potato in cultivation, and a most excellent keeper, which will make. It particularly valuable for shipping purposes.”

W.H. Spooner’s Seed Catalogue, 1874

Brownell’s Best    History

originated in 1875 and belonging to that superior strain represented by the Snowflake,Pride of America, and a few others. Skin russet-white; flesh white, fine-grained and floury; size medium to large.

Brownell’s Centennial    History

(New, 1877), a cross between Brownell’s Beauty and White Peachblow. Tubers medium and uniform in size; shape nearly round, somewhat flattened; skin of a deep red color, smooth, uniform in coloring; flesh exceedingly fine grained, white, and when boiled or baked, of a lightness and porosity seldom equaled; cooks through evenly, without any hard or watery core.

Burbank’s Seedling    History

a white skinned, medium early variety, a seedling of the Early Rose, of fine form and good proportions. Either boiled or baked it is dry and floury, while the flesh is of fine grain and excellent flavor.

Compton’s Surprise    History

skin reddish purple; flesh white, of good quality. This variety is a seedling of the Prince Albert fertilized with the pollen of the Long Pinkeye.

Clark’s No. 1    History

Vines the most vigorous of any of the early sorts. Tubers similar to, but lighter colored than, the Early Rose, and they cook mealy, and are of excellent flavor.

Dunmore    History

tubers medium to large; skin white, slightly russeted; ordinary culture will produce an immense crop.

Early Gem    History

Of medium size, oval, very smooth, light pink, cooks exquisitely; flesh white, fine grained and very mealy.

Early Mayflower    History

we [D.M Ferry & Co.] think we have found in the Mayflower what we have been looking for, namely an early potato which is of the best quality. It is an excellent keeper, and does not start readily in the spring, and needs high culture and rich soil. It is of medium size, slightly flattened oval shape, light lemon color, with smooth skin well covered with very fine netting. Flesh white, solid; cooks evenly and thoroughly without falling to pieces, and has no hard center or spots so common to many of the modern varieties, and is entirely free from any strong or earthy flavor.

Early Ohio    History

The market gardeners of the Detroit, Michigan vicinity regard this variety as their best early potato, being hardier than the Early Rose and an abundant yielder. The vines are vigorous and free from blight. The tubers are nearly round and about the color of the Rose. The flesh is solid and cooks dry and mealy, but is not pure white, although of the finest quality.

Early Rose    History

This was the first of Mr. Breese’s seedlings, offered in the spring of 1868, and has now . Become the standard variety for earliness, quality and productiveness.

Early Telephone    History

a new and valuable variety, produced by a cross of the Snowflake and Peachblow. Flesh is pure white and fine-grained, dry and mealy; flavor exceedingly delicate.

Early Vermont    History

very early, productive, and of fine quality.

Improved Peachblow    History

(New, 1877), this is a cross between the Jersey Peachblow and Excelsior. While in quality, it fully equals the parent Peachblow, in productiveness, it far excels it, yielding nearly double as much per acre; it also ripens somewhat earlier.

Late Rose    History

the best late variety; an excellent keeper.

Magnum Bonum    History

new (as of 1883); tubers medium to large; of excellent quality.

Mammoth Pearl    History

Vines are large and strong growing, so that in many cases they outstrip the bugs, and produce a crop in spite of them. The tubers, which ripen in August, are large, oblong, usually a little flattened, very smooth and uniform. Skin very white; flesh as white as that of any variety, and cooks as white as snow.

Peerless    History

enormously productive, largely grown South

Pride of America    History

very productive, growing to a large size. Flesh exceedingly fine grained and of snowy whiteness; cooks quickly and evenly, dry and floury, and has no hard center or core. Free from disease.

Rochester Favorite    History

new (as of 1883); tubers white, oval, immense yielder.

St. Patrick    History

a most excellent medium early potato, and enormously productive. Very handsome, smooth, White skin and white flesh. Produces very small tubers, the whole crop being uniform in size. A cross between the Early Rose and Garnet Chili.

Snowflake    History

a beautiful variety, early, very superior in quality, and very productive; a most excellent keeper, retaining all its good qualities until the new crop is ready for use.

Vick’s Prize    History

new (as of 1883); tubers large, skin white, quite smooth.

White Elephant    History

new (as of 1883); tubers very large, color light pink; grows to immense size, though not hollow; very productive.

White Star    History

White skin, covered with a minute russet netting; flesh is white, of the finest quality; becoming a standard sort in nearly every part of the country.

To Boil Potatoes (Frugal Housewife 1803)    History

Potatoes must always be peeled, except they be very small and new. Some pare potatoes before they are put into the pot; others think it the best way, both for saving time and preventing water, to peel off the skin as soon as they are boiled, which then slips off by rubbing them with a coarse cloth. In boiling them take care they be enough, and not over done; for if boiled too much, they mash and become watery. Therefore it requires good attention when you are boiling potatoes, and that they be taken up as soon as they begin to shew the least disposition to break. This is a root in great request, and served up in a dish or plate, whole for the most part, with a bason of melted butter. On which occasion it will be some addition to the potatoes to set them before the fire till they are quite dry, and a little browned.

Sussannah Carter, The Frugal Housewife, or Complete Woman Cook (New-York, C & R Waite, 1803), pp. 62-63.

Potatoes a La Maitre D’Hotel (Housekeeping Made Easy 1843)    History

Cold potatoes that have been boiled should be used for this purpose. Lay them in a frying pan with sufficient milk (or cream) to cover them, add a little butter, salt and chopped parsley, and fry them until the milk thickens. They will be sufficiently cooked in a quarter of an hour, and make an excellent dish for breakfast.

Housekeeping Made Easy 1843, p. 32

To Mash Potatoes (American Domestic Cookery 1823)    History

Boil the potatoes, peel them, and break them to paste; then to two pounds of them, add a quarter of a pint of milk, a little salt, and two ounces of butter, and stir it all well over the fire. Either serve them in this manner; or place them on the dish in form, and then brown the top with a salamander; or in scallops.

An Experienced Housekeeper, American Domestic Cookery (New York: Duyckinck, 1823), p. 196.

Potato Balls (Virginia Housewife 1838)    History

Mix mashed potatos with the yolk of an egg, roll them into balls, flour them, or cover them with egg and bread crumbs, fry them in clean dripping, or brown them in a Dutch oven. They are an agreeable vegetable relish, and a supper dish.

Mrs. Mary Randolph, The Virginia Housewife: or, Methodical Cook (Baltimore: Plaskitt, Fite & Co., 1838), p. 99.

Oyster Potato Balls (Centennial Cook Book 1876)    History

This is a very palatable dish for suppers, and its production being so very simple, it only requires to be pointed out to become popular. Beard a dozen (more or less, according to the number you provide for) small plump oysters, cover them singly with the plain mashed potato paste, roll them with flour, or beaten-up egg and bread crumbs, into balls, and fry them in butter or dripping. Put into each ball when you make it up a teaspoonful of the oyster liquor.

Mrs. Ella R. Myers, The Centennial Cook Book (Philadelphia: J. B. Myers, 1876), p. 84.

Potatoes Colcannon (Cooks Own Book 1840)    History

Boil potatoes and greens, or spinage, separately; mash the potatoes; squeeze the greens dry; chop them quite fine and mix them with the potatoes, with a little butter, pepper, and salt; put it into a mould, buttering it well first; let it stand in a hot oven for ten minutes.

A Boston Housekeeper, The Cook’s Own Book, and Housekeeper’s Register (Boston: Munroe & Francis, 1840), p. 149.

To Roast or Bake Potatoes (Lady’s New Book of Cookery 1852)    History

Scrub, and wash exceedingly clean, some potatoes nearly assorted in size; wipe them very dry, and roast them in a Dutch oven before the fire, placing them at a distance from it, and keeping them often turned; or, arrange them in a coarse dish, and bake them in a moderate oven. Dish them neatly in a napkin, and send them very hot to table; serve cold butter with them. One and three-quarters to upwards of two hours.

Lady’s New Book of Cookery 1852, p. 222

To Broil Potatoes (American Domestic Cookery 1823)    History

Parboil, then slice and broil them. Or parboil, and then set them whole on the gridiron over a very slow fire; and when thoroughly done, send them up with their skins on. This last way is practiced in many Irish families.

An Experienced Housekeeper, American Domestic Cookery (New York: Duyckinck, 1823), p. 196.

To Fry Sliced Potatos (Virginia Housewife 1838)    History

Peel large potatos, slice them about a quarter of an inch thick, or cut them in shavings round and round, as you would peel a lemon; dry them well in a clean cloth, and fry the in lard or dripping. Take care that your fat and frying-pan are quite clean; put it on a quick fire, watch it, and as soon as the lard boils and is still, put in the slices of potatos, and keep moving them till they are crisp; take them up, and lay them to drain on a sieve; send them up with very little salt sprinkled on them.

Mrs. Mary Randolph, The Virginia Housewife: or, Methodical Cook (Baltimore: Plaskitt, Fite & Co., 1838), p. 97.

Fried Potatoes No. 2 (National Cook Book 1856)    History

Boil some potatoes; when done, peel them, and set them away to get cold. Then chop them up fine, and add pepper and salt to the taste. Flour them, and fry in hot lard. They must be brown. Some add a little vinegar just before they are taken out of the pan.

National Cook Book 1856, p. 80

Fried Potatoes No. 3 (National Cook Book 1856)    History

Boil some potatoes, peel, and mash them finely. To ten potatoes add half a gill of milk or cream, and pepper and salt to the taste. Make the mashed potato in little cakes, flour them on both sides, and fry the in hot lard. If they are any cold mashed potatoes left from dinner, they may be cooked in this way for breakfast.

National Cook Book 1856, p. 80

Saratoga Fried Potatoes (Queen of the Kitchen 1874)    History

Take nicely peeled Irish potatoes, and cut them in very thin slices; throw them into cold water; ice water is best; let them remain for 1 hour; then take them out, and wipe them perfectly dry. Put a few at a time into boiling lard or beef drippings, stir them all the time to keep them from sticking to each other, or to the skillet. When fried a light brown, take them out and put others in. As you take them out of the grease, be careful not take any with them. Put them on a sieve, and keep them near the fire until ready to dish.

Miss Tyson, The Queen of the Kitchen; a Collection of ‘Old Maryland’ Family Receipts for Cooking (Philadelphia: T. B. Petterson & Brothers, 1874), p. 192.

Potato Fritters (Cooks Own Book 1840)    History

Peel, and pound in a mortar, six mealy potatoes, with a little salt, a glass of white wine, some pounded sugar, cinnamon, and an ounce of butter; roll it out with a little flour, cut them the size of a wine glass, and fry them in boiling clarified dripping. Serve them with sifted loaf sugar over them.

A Boston Housekeeper, The Cook’s Own Book, and Housekeeper’s Register (Boston: Munroe & Francis, 1840), p. 150.

Potato Fritters #2 (United States Cook Book 1859)    History

Grate ten or twelve raw potatoes and stir in two eggs, four ladlefuls of thick cream, two small crushed biscuit, some salt, a couple of grated onions, and a little pepper; work this mixture well together, and put a spoonful of it into a frying-pan, in which you have let some lard or butter heat to a light brown, let them fry quickly, and turn the fritters separately with a fork; when they are fried crisp on both sides, take them out one at a time, and put fresh batter in their place.

William Volmer, The United States Cook Book (Philadelphia: John Weick, 1859), p. 45.

Potato Rissoles (Practical Housekeeper 1857)    History

Boil the potatoes floury; mash them seasoning with salt and a little cayenne; mince parsley very finely and work up with the potatoes, adding eschalot also chopped small; bind with the yolk of egg; roll into balls and fry with fresh butter over a clear fire. Meat shred finely, bacon or ham may be added.

Mrs. [Elizabeth] Ellet, The Practical Housekeeper (New York: Stinger & Townsend, 1857), p. 379.

Potato Omelette (Lady’s New Book of Cookery 1852)    History

It may be made with a mashed potato or 2 ounces of potato-flour and 4 eggs, and seasoned with pepper, salt, and a little nutmeg. It should be made thick, and, being rather substantial, a squeeze of lemon will improve it. Fry a light brown.

Sarah Josepha Hale, Mrs. Hale’s New Book of Cookery (New York: H. Long & Brother, 1852), p. 224.

Potatoes with Dutch Herrings (United States Cook Book 1859)    History

For this purpose, first boil the potatoes, then slice them, and sweat them with butter and onions. Bone the herring as well as you can; lard a sauce-pan thickly with butter, strew wheaten flour around it, put in a layer of potatoes, then a layer of herring, cut small, and then a couple of spoonfuls of sour cream; then again a layer of potatoes, &c., until the saucepan is full. On the top, put again a little wheaten flour and some small pieces of butter, and cover it with a lid with live coals. When the potatoes are baked sufficiently, turn them out on a plate. The upper layer must be potatoes; the whole, also, may be baked in a moderately heated oven.

William Volmer, The United States Cook Book (Philadelphia: John Weick, 1859), p. 115.

Cold Potatoes with Spinach or Cabbage (Young Wife’s Cook Book 1870)    History

Mash cold potatoes, and moisten them with a little white sauce; take cold cabbage or spinach, and chop very finely; moisten them with brown gravy. Fill a tin mould with layers of potatoes and cabbage, cover the top, and put it into a stew-pan of boiling water. Let it remain long enough to make the vegetables hot; then turn them out and serve. This forms a very pretty dish for an entrie.

H. M. B. Peterson, The Young Wife’s Cook Book (Philadelphia: T. B. Peterson & Brothers, 1870), pp. 232-33.

Potato Souffle (Practical Housekeeper 1857)    History

Take any number of large potatoes, the less eyes and the firmer the skin the better. Clean them thoroughly and then bake them; after which cut ou a round piece, not quite so large as a half-crown, out of each potato, and remove as much of the inside as can be obtained with damage to the skin. Mash the potatoes with cream, adding a little butter, sprinkle over a little salt, and put to it half a pint of good milk; give it all a boil; take the white of three eggs, whip them until they froth, add them to the potatoes while they boil, and then make the potatoes into a paste; return them through the orifice in the skin of the potato until each skin is full; bake them and serve.

Mrs. [Elizabeth] Ellet, The Practical Housekeeper (New York: Stinger & Townsend, 1857), p. 379.

Potato Salad [#1] (Widdifield’s New Cook Book 1856)    History

Boil one dozen large potatoes and as many onions; when done, mash both together with two ounces of butter, pepper and salt to taste; put it into a sauce-pan over a moderate fire; stir all well together, and send to table hot. This is very nice to eat with cold meat.

Hannah Widdifield, Widdifield’s New Cook Book; or, Practical Receipts for the Housewife (Philadelphia: T. B. Peterson, 1856), p. 116.

Potato Salad [#2] (What to Eat 1863)    History

Cook them without water in an oven, or in hot cinders, if handy; then peel and cut them in thin slices; place them in a salad dish, season with chopped parsley, sweet oil, vinegar, salt, and pepper, and serve. You may use butter instead of oil if you serve warm; you may also add slices of beets, and of pickled cucumbers, according to taste.

Pierre Blot, What to Eat, and How to Cook It (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1863), pp. 193-94.

Potato-dumplings (United States Cook Book 1859)     History

From sixteen to twenty large, mealy potatoes are boiled with the peel, then peeled, allowed to get cold, and grated on a grater. Then stir together half a pound of melted butter, eight whole eggs, some salt, grated nutmeg, fine marjoram and thyme, until frothy; put the potatoes, a handful of flour, and five milk-rolls, cut into small dice of which the one half is toasted in butter, and the other moistened with some cold milk, also a little finely chopped parsley, into the batter which has been beaten to a froth. Stir all well together, and after letting it rest a while, dip your hands in flour and form small dumplings. Put these into boiling salt and water, boil them slowly for fifteen minutes, take them out with a skimmer, and put them into deep dishes, strew over them grated crackers, browned in butter of a light colour, and set them to the table.

William Volmer, The United States Cook Book (Philadelphia: John Weick, 1859), pp. 54-55.

An Excellent Plain Potatoe Pudding (American Domestic Cookery 1823)    History

Take eight ounces of boiled potatoes, two ounces of butter, the yolks and whites of two eggs, a quarter of a pint of cream, one spoonful of white wine, a morsel of salt, the juice and rind of a lemon: beat all to froth; sugar to taste. A crust or not, as you like. Bake it. If wanted richer, put three ounces more butter, sweetmeats and almonds, and another egg.

An Experienced Housekeeper, American Domestic Cookery (New York: Duyckinck, 1823), p. 167.

Potato Flour (Lady’s New Book of Cookery 1852)    History

Rasp the potatoes into a tub of cold water, and change it repeatedly until the raspings fall to the bottom like paste; then dry it in the air, pound it in a mortar and pass it through a hair sieve. It is nearly as nutritive, and much lighter, than wheaten flour; it is, therefore, preferable for making puddings and pastry for infants and invalids; a portion of it also improves the appearance of household bread, and dealers constantly pass it off as arrowroot. If kept dry, it will remain good for years.

Sarah Josepha Hale, Mrs. Hale’s New Book of Cookery (New York: H. Long & Brother, 1852), p. 225.

Potato Jelly (Lady’s New Book of Cookery 1852)    History

Is made from the flour, only boiling water must be poured upon it, but care must be taken that it be absolutely boiling, or the complete change into jelly will not take place. It does not take many minutes to thus change a raw potato into this substance, which is not only highly nutritive, but extremely agreeable to the palate when flavored with a little sugar, nutmeg, and white wine.

Sarah Josepha Hale, Mrs. Hale’s New Book of Cookery (New York: H. Long & Brother, 1852), p. 225.

Potato-Soup (United States Cook Book 1859)    History

Slice from eight to ten large mealy potatoes, a carrot, a head of celery, and place them on the fire in half a gallon of soup-stock; let it boil ten minutes; after which add the crumb of six milk-rolls; when all is perfectly soft, rub the whole through a hair sieve, put in four quarts of strong white soup-stock more; let the soup boil about three minutes longer, stirring it now and then, and dish it. Generally, instead of the milk-rolls, a few more potatoes are taken; otherwise, the treatment is the same, only that the soup must be dished over dice-shaped piece of bread browned in batter, of a light colour.

William Volmer, The United States Cook Book (Philadelphia: John Weick, 1859), pp. 16-17.

Potatoe Cakes (Cookery as it Should Be 1856)    History

Boil four potatoes, skin and peal them, mash smoothly, and beat in a spoonful of good sweet lard; then pour in one pint of new milk; stir this well; add a very little salt, and as much flour as will make it the consistency of muffins—this is to drop from the spoon; then add to large spoonfuls of yeast. Set it to rise. Bake in rings in the oven. Serve hot.

A Practical Housekeeper, Cookery as it Should Be (Philadelphia: Willis P. Hazard, 1856), p. 176.

Potato Cake (Southern Gardener and Receipt Book 1860)    History

Roast in the ashes a dozen small, or six large potatoes. When done, peel them, and put them into a pan with a little salt, and the rind of a lemon grated. Add a quarter of a pound of butter, or half a pint of cream, and a quarter of a pound of sugar. Having mashed the potatoes with this mixture, rub it through a colander, and stir it very hard; then set it away to cool. Beat eight eggs, and stir them gradually into the mixture. Season it with a teaspoonful of mixed spice, and half a glass of rose-water; butter a mold or a deep dish, and spread the inside all over with grated bread; put in the mixture, and bake it for three-quarters of an hour.

Mrs. Mary L. Edgeworth, The Southern Gardener and Receipt-Book (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. 1860), p. 189.

Potatoe Muffins (Cookery as it Should Be 1856)    History

Boil three good sized potatoes, skin and mash them, beat in a teaspoonful of salt, and a piece of good butter the size of an egg; make this perfectly smooth, and about the consistency of starch by adding a little warm water; beat u p two eggs, dissolve one teaspoonful of soda in a little water, with a teacup of yeast; then add three pints of sifted flour; mix these well together, and add one pint of milk-warm water; stir in the soda, and set it to rise over night for breakfast. Bake in rings on the griddle.

A Practical Housekeeper, Cookery as it Should Be (Philadelphia: Willis P. Hazard, 1856), p. 176.

Potato Scones (Godey’s Ladys Book Receipts 1870)    History

Mash boiled potatoes till they are quite smooth, addig a little salt; then knead out with flour, to the thickness required; toast, princking the with a fork to prevent them slitering. When eaten with fresh butter, they are very nutritious.

S. Annie Frost, The Godey’s Lady’s Book Receipts and Household Hints (Philadelphia: Evans, Stoddart & Co., 1870), pp. 153-54.